Acute appendicitis: clinical manifestations, classification, surgical treatment, complications

Explain the clinical manifestations of acute appendicitis Abdominal pain: the first symptom, initially localized to the periumbilical region, persistent aggravation, gradually shifts and fixed in the right lower abdomen Gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea, vomiting, increased frequency of bowel movements Systemic reactions: fever, lack or loss of appetite, oliguria, thirst, toxic symptoms. Signs: Rebound tenderness, pain on […]

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Hyperthyroidism – Classification, Indications & Surgical Treatment

Classification of hyperthyroidism, indications, Surgical operation indications and contraindications. Classification Primary hyperthyroidism Secondary hyperthyroidism Hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma Indications: Nodular hyperthyroidism, although drugs or iodine can eliminate or alleviate the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, but the nodules still exist, and may be secondary to hyperthyroidism or cancer. Diffuse hyperthyroidism, after systemic drug treatment, no significant improvement, or […]

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What are the routes of Urinary tract infections?

(1) Ascending infection: Pathogens travel up the bladder via the urethra, and even ureters or renal pelvis, infections are called ascending infections, accounting for about 95% of urinary tract infections. Under normal circumstances, a small amount of bacteria such as streptococci, lactic acid bacteria, staphylococcus, and diphtheria-like bacilli are located around the anterior urethra and […]

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Diagnosis and Classification of Proteinuria

Diagnosis and Classification of Proteinuria Daily urinary protein exceeds 150 mg or urinary protein/creatinine ratio (PCR) > 200 mg/g is called proteinuria. 24-hour urinary albumin excretion is called microalbuminuria in 30-300 mg.                           Pathological proteinuria is more persistent and more: 1) Overflow proteinuria: […]

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Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis Classification

RPGN I: anti-GBM disease Goodpasture syndrome RPGN II: RPGN superimposed on any immune complex disease (Immune complex glomerulonephritis) Henoch-Schönlein purpura Cryoglobulinemia RPGN III: RPGN without significant immune deposits; usually with systemic vasculitis syndromes (ANCA granulonephritis) Wegener granulomatosis

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