Browsing Category : MedPosts

Montgomery tubercles – 蒙氏结节


Areolar glands or Glands of Montgomery are sebaceous glands in the areola surrounding the nipple. The glands make oily secretions (lipoid fluid) to keep the areola and the nipple lubricated and protected. Volatile compounds in these secretions may also serve as an olfactory stimulus for newborn appetite. The portions of the gland visible on the skin’s surface are called “Montgomery…

Read More »

Acute appendicitis: clinical manifestations, classification, surgical treatment, complications


Explain the clinical manifestations of acute appendicitis Abdominal pain: the first symptom, initially localized to the periumbilical region, persistent aggravation, gradually shifts and fixed in the right lower abdomen Gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea, vomiting, increased frequency of bowel movements Systemic reactions: fever, lack or loss of appetite, oliguria, thirst, toxic symptoms. Signs: Rebound tenderness, pain on percussion, rigidity, and guarding, McBurney…

Read More »

Hyperthyroidism – Classification, Indications & Surgical Treatment


Classification of hyperthyroidism, indications, Surgical operation indications and contraindications. Classification Primary hyperthyroidism Secondary hyperthyroidism Hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma Indications: Nodular hyperthyroidism, although drugs or iodine can eliminate or alleviate the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, but the nodules still exist, and may be secondary to hyperthyroidism or cancer. Diffuse hyperthyroidism, after systemic drug treatment, no significant improvement, or relapse after stopping the drug.…

Read More »

What are the routes of Urinary tract infections?


(1) Ascending infection: Pathogens travel up the bladder via the urethra, and even ureters or renal pelvis, infections are called ascending infections, accounting for about 95% of urinary tract infections. Under normal circumstances, a small amount of bacteria such as streptococci, lactic acid bacteria, staphylococcus, and diphtheria-like bacilli are located around the anterior urethra and urethral orifice, and do not…

Read More »

Diagnosis and Classification of Proteinuria


Diagnosis and Classification of Proteinuria Daily urinary protein exceeds 150 mg or urinary protein/creatinine ratio (PCR) > 200 mg/g is called proteinuria. 24-hour urinary albumin excretion is called microalbuminuria in 30-300 mg.                           Pathological proteinuria is more persistent and more: 1) Overflow proteinuria: The concentration of a certain…

Read More »