What are the routes of Urinary tract infections?

(1) Ascending infection: Pathogens travel up the bladder via the urethra, and even ureters or renal pelvis, infections are called ascending infections, accounting for about 95% of urinary tract infections. Under normal circumstances, a small amount of bacteria such as streptococci, lactic acid bacteria, staphylococcus, and diphtheria-like bacilli are located around the anterior urethra and urethral orifice, and do not cause diseases. Some factors such as sexual life, urinary tract obstruction, iatrogenic operation, genital infection, etc. can lead to the occurrence of ascending infection.

(2) Hematogenous route infection refers to the infection caused by pathogenic bacteria reaching the kidneys and other parts of the urinary tract by blood transport. This type of infection is rare and less than 2%. Occurred in patients with chronic diseases or immunosuppressive therapy. Common pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Candida albicans.

(3) Direct infection: When the infection occurs in the organs and tissues around the urinary system, pathogenic bacteria can directly invade the urinary system and cause infection.

(4) Lymphatic tract infections: Pathogenic bacteria can infect the urinary system from lymphatic vessels when pelvic and lower abdominal organs are infected, but it is rare.

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