Areolar glands or Glands of Montgomery are sebaceous glands in the areola surrounding the nipple. The glands make oily secretions (lipoid fluid) to keep the areola and the nipple lubricated and protected. Volatile compounds in these secretions may also serve as an olfactory stimulus for newborn appetite.
The portions of the gland visible on the skin’s surface are called “Montgomery tubercles”. The round bumps are found in the areola, and on the nipple itself. They can become exposed and raised when the nipple is stimulated. The skin over the surface opening is lubricated and tends to be smoother than the rest of the areola. The tubercles become more pronounced during pregnancy.
The number of glands can vary greatly, usually averaging from four to 28 per breast.
Imaging principle: To determine the state of coronary blood flow and the state of cardiomyocyte survival.
Normal cardiomyocytes selectively take up certain monovalent cationic compounds, which can be visualized by radionuclide labeling
Tracer uptake correlates positively with regional myocardial blood flow and correlates with cardiomyocyte function status
Normal myocardium develops, while ischemic or necrotic myocardium does not develop (defect) or image fades (sparse)
Nuclear Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging
Nuclear stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a nuclear cardiology test that shows how well blood flows to the muscle of the heart (myocardium). This test is used to diagnose the presence or absence of coronary artery disease.
Here is a simple intro about MPI test.
A radioactive tracer (called Myoview) is injected into the patient’s bloodstream and is taken up by the heart tissue. A single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) camera detects the radiation released by the tracer to produce images of the heart. Two sets of images are taken, one after an injection at rest and another after an injection during a stress test – either exercise stress on a treadmill or drug-induced stress with persantine (dipyridamole) medication, which simulates exercise.
MPI tests can help your doctor:
• Find out if there are narrowings or blockages in your coronary (heart) arteries if you have chest discomfort.
• If you have heart damage from a heart attack if your heart is not working normally.
• Determine if you should undergo a coronary angiogram.
• Decide whether you would benefit from coronary stent or bypass surgery to treat your chest discomfort or help an abnormal pumping function go back to normal.
• If a heart procedure you had to improve blood flow (stent, bypass) is working.
• How well your heart can handle physical activity.
Explain 201TI myocardial perfusion imaging to distinguish myocardial infarction and myocardial ischemia.
201TI enters cardiomyocytes and is related to the activity of sodium pump. The uptake of 201TI by the myocardium is a marker of myocardial cell activity and cell membrane integrity. Therefore, 201TI is a common method for identifying viable myocardium and necrotic myocardium.
201TI MPI is a characteristic manifestation of the diagnosis of reversible myocardial ischemia from early perfusion defects to delayed imaging perfusion defects.
The perfusion defects in the early and delayed necrotic myocardium were fixed without change.
Hyperthyroidism with thyroid compression symptoms or retrosternal goiter, or suspected cancer
Medical treatment of side effects such as allergies or myelosuppression
Long-term drug treatment relapse after drug withdrawal or relapse after 131I treatment
Those with the above indications in the early and middle stages of pregnancy should also consider surgery
Mild primary hyperthyroidism
Exophthalmos is severe and hyperthyroidism is mild.
The patient has severe organ dysfunction such as heart and lung, and the drug is not improved, and surgery is not allowed.
The role and usage of iodine as a preoperative preparation for hyperthyroidism.
Inhibits proteolytic enzymes, thereby reducing the decomposition of thyroglobulin, which gradually inhibits the release of thyroxine, and does not cause sudden changes in the circulatory system after surgery.
Iodine can reduce the blood flow of the thyroid and reduce the congestion of the gland, with the time glands get shrunken and harden.
Use of iodine: compound potassium iodide solution, 3 times a day, 3 drops per day on the first day, then add 1 drop each time to 16 drops each time, then maintain this dose.
(1) Ascending infection: Pathogens travel up the bladder via the urethra, and even ureters or renal pelvis, infections are called ascending infections, accounting for about 95% of urinary tract infections. Under normal circumstances, a small amount of bacteria such as streptococci, lactic acid bacteria, staphylococcus, and diphtheria-like bacilli are located around the anterior urethra and urethral orifice, and do not cause diseases. Some factors such as sexual life, urinary tract obstruction, iatrogenic operation, genital infection, etc. can lead to the occurrence of ascending infection.
(2) Hematogenous route infection refers to the infection caused by pathogenic bacteria reaching the kidneys and other parts of the urinary tract by blood transport. This type of infection is rare and less than 2%. Occurred in patients with chronic diseases or immunosuppressive therapy. Common pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Candida albicans.
(3) Direct infection: When the infection occurs in the organs and tissues around the urinary system, pathogenic bacteria can directly invade the urinary system and cause infection.
(4) Lymphatic tract infections: Pathogenic bacteria can infect the urinary system from lymphatic vessels when pelvic and lower abdominal organs are infected, but it is rare.